The US Navy school of Music
The Navy School of Music (formerly and still widely known as the U.S. Armed Forces School of Music) is a United States Navy school located on board Little Creek Naval Amphibious Base in Norfolk, Virginia. The school’s mission is to provide specialized musical training to musicians of the Navy, Army, and Marine Corps military bands. The school does not provide training for musicians of the Air Force or Coast Guard.
The U.S. Navy School of Music was founded at the Washington Navy Yard by order of the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation on 26 June 1935. The school was originally run by the U.S. Navy Band, with members of the Navy Band teaching classes and private lessons in addition to their regular performance duties with the band. After the commencement of World War II, these duties were deemed too onerous for the Navy Band personnel and the school was separated from the band and relocated to the Anacostia Naval Receiving Station in Washington, D.C. on 24 April 1942.
The Marine Corps was given an allocation for 15 students in 1946 and the first Marine Corps students enrolled in 1947. The school was renamed “U.S. Naval School of Music” to reflect the fact that the school now trained not only Navy personnel but all personnel of the naval service. In 1950 the Army reached an agreement with the Navy to begin training Army musicians at the Naval School of Music. The first class of 150 Army students began training in January 1951.
On 13 April 1961 the Secretary of the Navy announced plans for the US Naval School of Music to be relocated to Little Creek Naval Amphibious Base. On 12 August 1964 the doors to the Naval School of Music in Washington, D.C. were secured. The USS Caddo Parish and the USS Monmouth County proceeded to Little Creek loaded with musical instruments and Army and Navy personnel. Each ship had a band aboard to play honors as it passed George Washington’s tomb in Mt. Vernon, Virginia. This was the first time an Army band performed honors on a Navy ship for president George Washington. The ships landed at the base on the morning of 13 August 1964. The school was renamed “U.S. Armed Forces School of Music” concurrent with the move. One of the highlights of the move of the School of Music was the dedication ceremony concert, which included Arthur Fiedler, conductor of the Boston Pops, conducting the School of Music Concert Band.
The US Army school of Music
The earliest formal training for U.S. Army musicians was at the “School of Practice for U.S.A. Field Musicians” at Fort Jay on Governor’s Island, New York. Musical training was first held at this location in 1809, but training wasn’t formalized at Ft. Jay until shortly before the Civil War. Between the end of the Civil War and the beginning of the twentieth century, training was often sporadic and not standardized. In 1911, Frank Damrosch, Director of the Institute of Musical Art (later renamed The Juilliard School), and Arthur A. Clappe, a graduate of the Royal Military School of Music, began a formal school for Army bandmasters at Fort Jay. By 1914 the school had added a course of basic musical training to the program of instruction. The school grew rapidly, along with Army bands as a whole, during World War I. In February 1920, the Army Music School at Fort Jay was designated a Special Services School of the Army. In September 1921 the school was moved to the Army War College, Washington D.C. This ended the affiliation with the Institute of Musical Art, which lasted 10 years and provided the Army with many outstanding leaders; among the school’s graduates during the Fort Jay years was composer Percy Grainger. The school was closed by the Army in 1928. The Army re-opened the school and re-established a three-month warrant officer band leader training beginning 10 June 1941 by the Adjutant General and functioned under the supervision of the leader of the United States Army Band. It was originally located in the United States Army Band Barracks, Army War College and subsequently moved to Fort Myer, Virginia. Students were selected from enlisted men who had the following general qualifications: a. At least three years service in a Regular Army band, b. Physically qualified and possess the moral and general qualifications necessary for appointment as Warrant Officers, and c. Not over 45 years of age. On 24 July 1943 sites were approved by Lt. General Somervell for two band training units. One was located at the Signal Corps Replacement Training Center, Camp Crowder, Missouri, and the other at the Quartermaster Replacement Training Center, Camp Lee, Virginia. Becoming operative about 1 September 1943, the Adjutant General assigned 20 enlisted men on alternate weeks beginning with the weeks during July and August 1943 who were “earmarked” for the bandsman course. Approximately 160 bandsmen were trained during each training cycle. One commissioned officer was in charge of the course. The training was run concurrently with the regular basic training of soldiers. The band training units were organized by the Chief of the Music Section, Special Services Division and music officers were placed in charge of each installation. The training program and all curricular material was prepared by the Music Section, Special Services Division. After training what the Army considered to be enough bandmasters, the school was again closed on 1 January 1944. Bandsmen for the Army received on-the-job training for the next several years and there were no advanced-level course for bandmasters or senior enlisted leaders. The Army began consolidating musical training with the Navy in 1951, but maintained separate, Army-only bandsmen courses at several other locations until January 1956. Since 1956 the Army has conducted musical training only in conjunction with the Navy School of Music. Combined training of music warrant officers and enlisted bandsmen at the Band Training Unit, Camp Lee, Virginia. With the establishment of Enlisted Bandleader (E8) positions, a training program directed toward qualifying enlisted members for positions was programmed and implemented. This course became a prerequisite for the Warrant Officer Bandmaster Course of Instruction. In 1970, a group leader course was established at the School of Music. This course trained group leaders with the leadership and musical skills at an intermediate level. It filled the gap between the basic and advanced courses offered at the School of Music. The first class enrolled in January 1971. The advanced training courses for Army bandsmen underwent major revision in 1984. The Group leader Course (F2) graduated its last class in November 1984. In December 1984, the last Enlisted Bandleader Course graduated from the School of Music and the course was discontinued. In 1983, the School of Music ended its long relationship with the Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) as a separate service school and was integrated into the Soldier Support Center. All advanced courses underwent major revisions and aligned with the Noncommissioned Officer Education System (NCOES). NCOs were now able to obtain credit on their official military records for classes taken, something that was unavailable under the old system. The following courses were offered: (1) Advanced Noncommissioned Officer Course (ANCOC). This course trained sergeants first class and promotable staff sergeants. A common core, covering military training, was taught prior to arrival at the technical track at the School of Music. Training covered rehearsal techniques for ensemble and stage bands; band supply, administration, and operations procedures; and augmentation mission. The first ANCOC class began training at the School of Music in September 1984. Common Core was first taught at Ft. Ben Harrison, later moved to Ft. Eustis and finally established at the School of Music in 1996. (2) Basic Noncommissioned Officer Course (BNCOC). This course trained staff sergeants and promotable sergeants. These band members received training in section rehearsal techniques and drum majoring. They also received augmentation mission training as squad leaders/team leaders. The first BNCOC class was enrolled in June 1985. In 2004, the School of Music established a four week Basic Music Course for Reserve Component Soldiers to replace the old method of having them perform OJT with a band. In 2005, in recognition of the expanding role of Army-specific training, the U.S. Army Element, School of Music was re-designated as the U.S. Army School of Music. The Host-Tenant relationship with the Navy School of Music remained unchanged. The Navy retains control over training and administration and “owns” the curriculum; the commanding officer, executive officer, and training officer (with the exception of one Marine Corps officer) have always been Navy officers. The Army contingent was designated “U.S. Army Element School of Music” in 1951; however, due to recent force-structure realignment, the Army contingent was redesignated “U.S. Army School of Music” in 2005. In October 2010 the Army begins deconsolidation of activities from the Navy and Marines. Though all three services share facilities, faculty and administration, the curriculum is radically changing to meet the need of a fast-paced Army. To fall in order with Army Force Generation (ARFORGEN), a modular strategy to sustaining global commitments, bands organize by small units called Music Performance Teams (MPTs.) The teams consist of the command team, the ceremonial unit, the popular ensemble, brass section and woodwind section. Some bands have more MPTs than others to create a larger organization according to deployment needs. Training has begun to move away from large wind ensembles except for marching bands. Though the concert band is still the choice for large stages, smaller venues of the deployed theaters dictate that smaller groups are most effective. The concept of the MPT was developed to facilitate transporting musical groups to the patrol bases, forward operating bases (FOBs), Contingency Operating Bases (COBs) and any other troop operated position. The Army bands must fit in convoys of trucks or in helicopters to move through areas of operation to put on shows. An MPT is not a set instrumentation, but a team of instrumentalists and/or singers who are tasked to perform in a certain genre. Army bands deploy genres of American blues, country music, bebop, Dixieland jazz, gospel music, R&B, Salsa music, bluegrass music, rock music or barbershop quartet–and any style that the talent at hand can develop. The School of Music is developing their program to emphasize the diversity of music by training leaders to organize, rehearse and perform in small ensembles tailored to meet the troops’ current interests. In this manner, an Army Band is not just the music of John Phillip Sousa, but is also today’s top 40 in many genres.
The Army School of Bagpipe Music and Highland Drumming
The Army School of Bagpipe Music and Highland Drumming is a British Army training establishment that provides instructions of Scottish bagpipe music to military pipers, drummers and pipe bands. History Founded in 1910 as the Army School of Piping (later renamed the Army School of Bagpipe Music), the School is located at Inchdrewer House near Redford Barracks in Edinburgh, Scotland and is administered by the Infantry Training Centre, it is also affiliated with the Corps of Army Music. Generally regarded as the smallest unit in the British Army, the School is now commanded by a Director who is a qualified army Pipe Major and who usually holds the rank of Captain or Major (usually being commissioned from Warrant Officer rank on appointment). The Director is assisted by a Chief Instructor, who is the Senior Pipe Major of the British Army. The School provides courses at different levels to pipers and drummers of the British Armed Forces throughout the year, and qualified instructors are drawn from the pipes and drums of various units in the British Army. The School accepts students from Commonwealth armed forces, but not civilians. It has in the past provided instruction to various police band members, but this has not taken place for a number of years. The School forms part of the Piping and Drumming Qualifications Board, which is a collaboration among the Piobaireachd Society, the Royal Scottish Pipe Band Association, the College of Piping, and the Piping Centre. Together, the Institute sets a standardised piping certificate program for students from around the world. Directors • Captain John MacLellan (Queen’s Own Highlanders), 1961–1974 • Major John Allan (Queen’s Own Highlanders), 1981–1990 • Major Gavin Stoddart, BEM, MBE (Royal Highland Fusiliers), 1990–2003 • Captain Stuart Samson (The Highlanders), 2003–2007 • Captain Steven Small (Black Watch), 2007–
Australian Defence Force School of Music
Mission To deliver professional music training that meets the needs of service bands within the Australian Defence Force. Vision The Defence Force School of Music is a best practice organisation that delivers ‘in time’ training for all service bands, at all times remaining responsive to changing customer requirements. The school remains an industry leader, recognised both nationally and internationally as a world class professional music teaching facility. It sets the standard of music training through its technical competence, innovative and resourceful methods and administrative proficiency. Values The Defence Force School of Music embraces the values of teamwork, courage and initiative, and recognises that mutual respect and commitment are essential to obtaining superior results in the training and performance environment. Music is a dynamic and evolving discipline that requires regular evaluations of training regimes. Such training must reflect that the very nature of music performance requires musicians to constantly strive for excellence in every field of their endeavour.
Royal Military School of Music
How to get there: Underground to Hounslow East, then by bus along B361 or by car along A316 (next to Twickenham rugby ground) The collection consists mainly of musical instruments used by military bands since 1780, plus uniforms, paintings and associated objects. The archive is housed in the Curator’s office and may be viewed by appointment.
Pakistan Army School of Music
History Pakistan Army School of Music was established in 1952 at Chirat in North Western province of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa under the supervision of Captain Donald Keeling, who was Director of Music from UK and the first Chief Instructor of this School. Due to certain administrative and financial problems the School remained in suspended animation from April 1953 till it was re-raised at Lahore—capital of Punjab province—under the supervision of Captain Baker in 1954. In October 1956, the School was shifted back to Khyber-Pakhtunkha now in the scenic city of Abbottabad and was attached with the Frontier Force (FF) Regimental Centre. Nine years later, in July 1965, it was attached with Baloch Regimental Centre and this arrangement exists till today in a way as the Commandant Baloch Regimental Centre is also Commandant of this School although the School has been reorganized as a static unit since 1970. Educational Philosophy To create an environment to facilitate the aptitude of the students for music and to provide maximum facilities to exploit the potential and latent talent of the students for music. This Institution is endeavoring to acquire the latest trends and developments in the field of music training with an objective to produce competent musicians. The Faculties and Courses The training wing of this institution has been organized into following faculties each headed by a music course qualified instructor of the rank of Major: (i) Military Band Wing Faculty; (ii) Pipe Band Wing Faculty; (iii) Solo Instruments Faculty. Annually, around 570 students (200, 300 and 70 students from the three faculties, respectively) qualify from the School. Courses offered at different levels are:- Military Band Courses • Military Band Beginner’s Course 84 weeks • Military Band Advance Course 42 weeks • Bandmaster Course 84 weeks Pipe Band Courses • Drummer’s Training Course 42 weeks • Pipe Training Course 42 weeks • Drum Major Course 21 weeks • Pipe Major Course 21 weeks Solo Instrument Courses • Buglar’s Training Course 42 weeks • Trumpeter’s Training Course 42 weeks Selection Criteria Course Criteria Military Band Beginner’s • Band Service between Course 2 – 3 years. Military Band Advance • Should be Beginner’s Course qualified with minimum (BEE) grading • Service between 5 – 10 years. Band Master Course • Bandsmen with service between 5 – 10 years are eligible Must have done Military Band Advance Course with minimum (BEE) grade • Pipe Band Courses Drummer’s Training Course • Service Between 2 – 5 years Piper’s Training Course • Service Between 2 – 5 years Drum Major’s Course • Should be Drummer’s Training Course qualified with minimum (BEE) grading • Bandsman with Service between 5 – 10 years are eligible. Pipe Major’s Course • Should be Piper’s Training Course qualified with minimum (BEE) grading • Bandsman with service between 5 – 10 years are eligible. Buglar’s Training Course • Service Between 2 – 5 years. Trumpeter’s Training • Service Between 2 – 5 Course years. Extra Curricular Activities Following extra curricular activities are carried out by the students in an organized fashion under School staff: • Recreational trips are arranged to historical places around Abbottabad • Hiking • Participation in concerts • Indoor/outdoor games
The City of Edinburgh Music School
The City of Edinburgh Music School is a state-maintained is a music school in Scotland in Edinburgh, Scotland. Founded as the Lothian Specialist Music School in 1980, it changed its name in 1996 when Lothian Regional Council was dissolved into four separate unitary councils. It is a non-residential school, and because it is funded by the City of Edinburgh Council, it charges no fees. Unlike residential music schools, pupils attend comprehensive schools for their academic classes: Flora Stevenson Primary and Broughton High School.
The Royal Military School of Music
The Royal Military School of Music (RMSM) in Twickenham, West London, trains musicians for the British Army’s twenty-nine bands. It is part of the Corps of Army Music. The school is based at Kneller Hall, which was the country house of the court painter Sir Godfrey Kneller, and was rebuilt after a fire in 1848. The RMSM was established in 1857 at the instigation of Prince George, Duke of Cambridge, Queen Victoria’s cousin and the commander-in-chief of the army. In 1854, during the Crimean War, he had attended a parade in Scutari, in Turkey, to celebrate the Queen’s birthday. During the parade the approximately twenty British Army bands on parade were required to combine in a performance of the national anthem. The custom, at this time, was for regiments to hire civilian bandmasters for their bands, each of whom had free rein in both the instrumentation of the band and the arrangements it played. With each band playing God Save the Queen simultaneously in different instrumentations, pitch, arrangement, and key signatures, the result was an embarrassing and humiliating cacophony. The Duke decided that there should be some standardisation in army music and so formed the RMSM, with Henry Schallehn (who also became the first director of music at the Crystal Palace) as commandant. For many years the commandant was Colonel T. B. Shaw-Hellier, owner of the Hellier Stradivarius. The school is open to men and women, and the commitment to the army is for a minimum of four years. The Corps of Army Music is the largest employer of musicians in the United Kingdom, and it promotes itself to potential recruits as an opportunity to earn a salary as a musician, something which can be hard to do. The music taught and performed is not restricted to martial music, but also includes jazz, swing, middle-of-the-road, popular, baroque, mainstream symphonic and operatic music. The Royal Military School of Music Museum at Kneller Hall has a collection of musical instruments, music, documents, prints, manuscripts, paintings and uniforms showing the history of military music; it is open to the public by appointment.
Irish Defense Forces School of Music
The idea for the establishment of an Army School of Music was first mooted in November, 1922. General Richard Mulcahy, the then Chief of Staff, said “ … I want to have bands that will dispense music and musical understanding in the highest terms to the people…”. Under the direct supervision of General Mulcahy and Dr. J.F. Larchet, musical adviser to the Army, the project was begun. The first requirement was for expert military musicians to take on the task of training bands. Approaches to the French Garde Republicaine Band, the leading wind combination in Europe at the time, proved unsuccessful. Enquiries in Germany were more fruitful. One musician in particular, Col Wilhelm Fritz Brase, was an obvious choice. Brase had one of the most celebrated reputations in German military band circles before the 1914-1918 war. He was a distinguished graduate of the Leipzig Conservatoire and had also studied at the Berlin Academy. By 1907 he had become “Royal Music Director” and in 1911 he was appointed Director of the Band of the First Grenadiers, one of the most coveted positions in German Military Music. He conducted his final massed band concert at Christmas 1917 before the Kaiser, Generals Von Hindenberg and Ludendorf and the German General Staff. When the proposition to come to Ireland was put to him, he accepted and specifically asked that Christian Sauerzweig, also a German military musician, should be asked to come as his assistant. Sauerzweig, a multi-instrumentalist, had graduated from the Royal Academy in Berlin with the rarely granted note “Excellent’’. While in Berlin, he had frequently performed with the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, and was in particular demand for the oboe d’amore and oboe da caccia parts in the works of Johann Sebastian Bach. These two musicians arrived in Ireland on the first of March 1923 and set about the organisation of a music service. A process of recruitment was initiated, and after a month Colonel Brase reported to GHQ that a band was now formed and could play hymns and a few marches. By October 1923 he felt that his band was strong enough to give a public recital at the Theatre Royal, Dublin. This was an unqualified success. In January 1924 the entire operation was transferred from the Curragh, Co. Kildare, to Beggars Bush Barracks, Dublin. Between 1924 and 1936 a school and three further military bands, all under the Corps title of The Army School of Music, were established. General Mulcahy’s idea of bringing music and performances of a worthy standard to the civilian population was nurtured, and in time flourished. In addition to the routine work of military ceremonial, a wide range of recital work was undertaken. Pioneer work was done in initiating schools concerts. Army conductors and instrumentalists played a fundamental role in orchestral concerts and in opera and ballet performances throughout the country. Colonel Brase died in 1940 and was succeeded by Colonel Sauerzweig, who served as Director until 1947. The office of Director then passed to Irish musicians who inherited an established tradition and structure. The first of these, Colonel James Doyle, joined the Army as a cadet in 1923 and held the appointment between 1947 and 1971. Colonel John Brennock served as Director between 1971 and 1981. The next two Directors, Colonel Fred O’Callaghan (1981–1987) and Colonel Jim McGee (1987–1988) had served as boy musicians before being commissioned, and Colonel Mc Gee had the distinction of having the longest ever service (almost fifty years) of any member of the Defence Forces. He was succeeded by Colonel Neil O’Brien. 1997 saw a reorganisation of the Defence Forces which also included a reduction in overall strength. The bands of the re-titled Defence Forces School of Music did not remain untouched by this process. The Band of the Curragh Command, (formerly The Army No. 3 Band and latterly The Band of the Curragh Training Camp), a unit with a long history of service, was unfortunately lost. This Band was established in 1925 and until its disbandment was an integral part of the civilian and military communities of the Curragh Camp. The Army Number 1 Band retained its title and remains co-located with the Directorate and school at Cathal Brugha Barracks, Dublin. The Band of the Southern Command (Collins Barracks, Cork) was renamed The Band of 1 Southern Brigade, and the Band of the Western Command (Custume Barracks, Athlone) was retitled The Band of 4 Western Brigade. The original aim of providing a music resource, not only for the Defence Forces but also for the State, continues to be the mission policy of the present Defence Forces School of Music. Bands remain actively involved with the civilian community and perform at many events throughout the country. More recently bands have begun to travel abroad to military tattoos and civilian festivals, thus bringing a unique tradition of military music to a wider audience.